By Christian Puff
Biosystematic experiences at the Rubiaceae have a protracted culture on the Institute of Botany in Vienna. inside this kinfolk the Anthospermeae, and particularly its African and Madagascan contributors, are of specific curiosity as a result of a number of facets of their evolution: I) Perfection of anemophily inside of an another way approximately solely zoophilous relatives; 2) transitions from hermaphrodity to polygamy and eventually dioecy; three) differentiation from huge and long-lived shrubs to short-lived herbs; four) adaptive radiation from humid to seasonally dry, fire-exposed and xeric habitats. although, morphological range associated with sexual differentia tion, modificatory plasticity, and eco-geographical polymorphism have for a very long time hampered our knowing of the relationships between those African Anthospermeae. hence, it used to be significant to place precise emphasis on box observations and to hold out various experiments with cultivated vegetation as well as the research of a massive herbarium fabric. the writer, consequently, performed broad box paintings, frequently lower than very hostile stipulations, and coated so much African nations from Ethiopia to Southern Africa and two times visited Madagascar. during this means a mess of knowledge was once gathered at the crew in admire to germination and progress shape, vegetative and reproductive morphology, anatomy and biology, embryology, karyology, crossing relationships, phytochemistry, distribu tion and ecology, etc.
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Additional info for A Biosystematic Study of the African and Madagascan Rubiaceae-Anthospermeae
Trichomes (Papillae and Hairs): Papillae, with dome- or coneshaped protuberances arising in the center of the cells (cf. Figs. 17 a, c), occur in selected species of all genera on the upper and the lower leaf surfaces, or sometimes only on the leaf margins. Such papillate protuberances are usually not more than 50 ~m high, and sometimes even less than 10 ~m. , for example, A. hirtum, Fig. 18 f, papillae surrounding the stomata, or N. cinerea, Fig. 17 d). , A. hispidulum, Fig. 17 b). The hairs are unicellular in the genera Anthospermum, Nenax and Carpacoce.
A. hispidulum, Figs. , A. basuticum). , A. ericifolium, Fig. 17 f). longisepalum is unusual and unique in having papillae on the upper surface and, on the lower side, hairs up to 100 Ilm long in the two furrows which bear the stomata (Fig. 21 d). Stomata: The leaves of all four genera are hypostomatic with the exception of two Nenax species (N. acerosa, Figs. 24 c-d, N. arenicola) and several Carpacoce species (C. vaginellata, C. scabra, C. gigantea, C. heteromorpha, Figs. 25 e, 26 b-e); the latter have amphistomatic leaves.
A. ammannioides, A. aethiopicum, A. galpinii, A. spathulatum, and others) and hardly become older (N. ). Dried, brown (long and short shoot) leaves, however, do not drop off readily but remain on the plants for several years (cf. N. microphylia, Fig. 9). Leaves, thus, are clearly not evergreen. This is particularly noteworthy as the highest concentration of taxa is found in the SW Cape Floristic Region, an area within mediterranean climatic conditions and characteristically evergreen sclerophyllous vegetation (cf.