A History of the Hebrew Language by Eduard Yechezkel Kutscher

By Eduard Yechezkel Kutscher

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B a u e r’s “M ixed L anguage‫ ״‬Theory. §33. Now, to be sure, in the case of some noun patterns with /a :/ instead o f /o :/ such as ‫‘ לקר‬honor’, for exampie, we do know why they did not change. Practically all the occurrences o f this p attern appear in later BH upon which A ram aic influence was already 23 BIBLICAL HEBREW [§§33-34 well under way (cf. §103). T hus there is reason to believe that the nouns belonging to this pattern are loans from A ram aic. However, although this explanation is quite plausible for som e noun patterns, it does not apply to patterns such as ‫ קם‬and ‫ צי ד‬discussed above, which are p art and parcel of the earliest strata o f BH.

The same applies to the ghayin as in the case of the name o f the city o f ‫ עזה‬which is transliterated in the Septuagint with a [g] — Gaza since the 'ayin in this word, exactly as in its m odern A rabic form, was pronounced as a velar [g]. As is well known, the A rabic form, transliterated by Europeans as G aza , is in use outside of Israel. E. each of the two signs ‫ ח‬,‫ ע‬was pronounced in either of two ways in different words, and each pronunciation represented the PS pronunciation o f the two different phonemes that survived in A rabic until today.

Greenberg, W ord 6 (1950), pp. 162ff. B. G uttural (Laryngal and Pharyngal) and Emphatic C onsonants §7. There are two consonantal series in Hebrew which have no counterpart in IE (except for /h/, sec §8): the gutturals (pharyngals and laryngals) and emphatics. I. The Laryngals ‫ ה‬,‫( א‬Γ, h /) §8. While the phoneme /h / is to be found in several IE languages, they 7 HEB R EW AS A SEMITIC L A NG UA G E [§§8 -1 2 lack the phoneme / ’/. To be sure, English, for example, does have this consonant, but employs it as a word marker only, c fr a n ice man as against a nice man.

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