An Essay on the History and Management of Literary, by James Hole

By James Hole

During this Essay, first released in 1853, the Victorian social activist James gap deals an impassioned defence of the single of the primary items of early Victorian social reformism, the mechanics' institutes. geared toward bettering the schooling of working-class males, girls and teenagers, the institutes provided uncomplicated literacy education in addition to higher-level lectures on technological know-how, the humanities, and undefined. This quantity, initially a prize-winning essay, outlines Hole's plan for making improvements to the efficacy of the institutes, which he observed as failing of their venture of enlivening the minds of these whose basic labours have been actual. The institutes 'have tested the best of the folk to culture', gap writes, yet that they had but, in his view, to instil it. an enormous paintings within the historical past of schooling, Hole's Essay presents revealing insights into social reformism and the complexities of sophistication politics in the circulation.

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His information, like his reading, would be crude, undigested, not always available when wanted, and very little of it probably connected with his own particular vocation. It would also be much less in amount than if he had applied the same time in regular and systematic study. No patent process has yet been discovered, no royal road yet found out, which will impart to a man the power of knowledge, without going through the labour needful to acquire it. Education is not an affair of childhood and youth, it is the business of the whole life.

Change which lies in the direct line of the best tendencies of the time is the opening of industrial occupations freely to both sexes. The same reasons which make it no longer necessary that the poor should depend on the rich, make it equally unnecessary that women should depend on men, and the best which justice requires is, that law and custom should not enforce dependence, (when the co-relative pi'otection has become superfluous) by ordaining that a woman who does not happen to have a provision by inheritance, shall have scarcely any means open to her of gaining a livelihood, except as a wife and mother.

1839 1853 Actual Average Attendance. Total Members. 332 2,166 Total. Drawing Class. Wathematic Class- Chemical Class. S4 35 36 24 19 13 89 72 The proportion for these three most important classes being 17 less than it was thirteen years ago, while the number of subscribers has increased nearly seven fold. In the Manchester Mechanics' Institute the number of pupils in the classes in 1836 was 787, and thirteen years later 706. The instruction of females was probably not contemplated by the earlier founders of Mechanics' Institutes, and the omission has certainly not been since greatly remedied.

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