An Introduction To Ancient Greek by Hackett

By Hackett

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10. οἱ μὲν ἄνθρωποι τῷ νόμῳ πείθονται· τὰ δὲ παιδία τοῖς φίλοις πείθεται. 11. ὁ λόγος ἐστὶ παρὰ τῶν θεῶν. [ἐστί is] 12. τὰ γὰρ δῶρα ἄγομεν παρὰ τοὺς θεούς. 13. σὺν ταῖς φίλαις ἔρχονται. 14. εἰς ἀνθρώπους λέγει ὁ θεός. [εἰς here: before] 15. σὺν θεῷ εἰρήνην πράττετε. [πράττω bring about] Nouns of the First (‑η) and Second (‑ο) Declensions; Article 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. ὁ μὲν ἄνθρωπος λέγει, ὁ δὲ θεὸς πράττει. τὸν πόνον λείπομεν. οἱ ἐν ταῖς νήσοις ἄνθρωποι ἡμῶν ἄρχουσιν. ] παρὰ τοῖς φίλοις βουλόμεθα μένειν.

Any stranger or foreigner, as opposed to a native or citizen, is called ξένος, and one addresses any stranger ὦ ξένε. The word is also used as opposite to φίλος, that is, the ξένος is not a member of the family. Thus we have the anomaly of the same word meaning both friend and stranger. 6. ψυχή life or the force of life that escapes from the person at death: from this the word carries the idea of the departed spirit, the shadow or ghost of the person that goes to Hades after death. In Homer, this shadowy realm is described as a place where spirits flit around in a Nouns of the First (‑η) and Second (‑ο) Declensions; Article vague and bleak eternity, clinging to the life they have lost.

The article can also be used as a possessive, to indicate that a thing belongs to someone mentioned in the sentence: that is, it may sometimes be translated as my, your, his/her/its, their, etc. 7. Greek has no indefinite article equivalent to our a/an. However, τις, τι (the indefinite pronoun) is sometimes used in a way similar to the indefinite article. Nouns declined with the article To find the base of a noun, remove the genitive singular ending. For this reason, the genitive is always given with a new noun in the vocabulary.

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