By Joan Beal
This sequence presents introductions to the most parts of English language research. Volumes hide elements of the heritage and constitution of the language comparable to: syntax, phonology, morphology, nearby and social version, previous English, center English, Early smooth English and foreign Englishes.
content material: 1. creation: are neighborhood kinds doomed?; 2. accessory; three. Dialect I: 'grammar'; four. Dialect II: lexis; five. The Diffusion version; 6. Levelling; 7. local id/ groups of perform; eight. Stereotypes; nine. end; 10. Resources.
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Extra info for An introduction to regional Englishes : dialect variation in England
The papers by Tagliamonte and various co-authors cited above are all studies based on comparison of data from a range of localities in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. These data were collected systematically, using the same methodology and sample design, so that such comparisons would be valid. The studies by Anderwald and Wagner et al. are based on data from the British National Corpus (BNC) and the Freiburg Regional English Dialects (FRED) corpus. The latter was compiled from oral history data held in archives within and beyond the UK, again in order to facilitate 1085 pages 1-124:Regional Englishes 5/10/10 11:50 Page 29 DIALECT VARIATION : MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 29 comparisons.
1. The accent of Merseyside, especially in its broad ‘Scouse’ version, is distinguished by the presence of affricated or fricated consonants where other accents have /p, t, k/. Thus rap is pronounced [rapf] or even [raφ], rat [rats] or [ras] and rack [rakx] or [rax]. Apart from the areas of the North-West Midlands influenced by Liverpool (which should perhaps be reassigned to Merseyside), this is not found in any other accent within England. Elsewhere, these consonants are tending to become glottalised or replaced by glottal stops, a phenomenon to which we will return in Chapter 5.
In East Anglia, H Retention is now recessive: according to Hughes et al. (2005: 79) it is still found in ‘rural East Anglia’ but ‘has been partly lost in Norwich’. Despite the fact that it is stigmatised, H Dropping appears to be spreading rather than receding. The last area of resistance seems to be the North-East, where H Retention is still common from Sunderland northwards, though recent research does suggest that some H Dropping is found even here. Within the North-east, H Dropping distinguishes the accent of Teesside from that of Tyneside, with those of Wearside and County Durham demonstrating some H Dropping (Burbano-Elizondo 2008).