Association for Jewish studies 1999- 24(1) by Nelson, M

By Nelson, M

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See also J. , D. Loades(1984), p. 17. 120. H. E. Mayer,TheCrusades(Oxford,1988),p. 294. 121 Rather than markinga genesis, the associationbetween death, martyrdom,and celestial rewardin the First Crusaderepresentsa theological 122PetertheHermit'svision in Jerusalemin 1094"confirmed" the culmination. '24 To Lanfranc'sdismay, 121. G. M. Dreves,AnalectahymnicaXLV(Leipzig,1904),2, p. 78. QuotedfromErdmann, Originof theIdea of Crusade,p. 345. 122. One of the strongestadvocatesof the message of self-sacrificeamongthe officials of the Churchwas none otherthan Pope GregoryVII himself.

91. Habermann, Gezerot,pp. 19-20, originallypublishedby A. Berlinerin OzarTovy (1878), pp. 46-48. Focusingon the advantageslife has to offer,the reportdoes morethan associate the victims' sacrificeswith the terminationof the persecution;it insinuatesthatthe personalsacrificesresultedin the astonishingaccomplishof buddingJewish ments of the community,which becamethe birth-mother settlementsin northernEurope. Theseattacksresulted in numerouscases of mass suicide in the spring and summermonths of 1096.

Of R. Akivareceivesmoreattention;he is the most The martyrdom in Jewishmartyrological celebrated tradition. Ber. archetype to Akivathe question,"When 9, 14, 2, andYT. "This his as features death a to be worthyof long-awaited aspiration question of dying,and it mightbe assumedthatit alludesto Akiva'sexpectation Butas S. andYT Sotahin individual recompense. 71The allusionto Akiva'sexpectationof of latereditors. an individualrewardin returnreflectsthe understandings 69. Kid. 39b. 70. San. Z. 8b, 27b; Y.

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