Basic Principles of Fresnel Antenna Arrays by Igor V. Minin, Oleg V. Minin

By Igor V. Minin, Oleg V. Minin

The short easy fundamentals of antenna arrays -- Lens applicants to antenna array -- FZP lens array -- a few fields of lens array purposes

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19). The structure is then replaced with a multi-layer stack whose properties can be calculated using transfer matrix methods [47, 48]. In addition to their focusing capabilities, SWDLs can also function as effective linear polarizers. Their inherently strong polarization dependence results from the particular direction of the subwavelength gratings, which favors one linear polarization of radiation over its orthogonal component. 3 Brief Review of FZP Antennas 33 a) b) c) d) e) Fig. 14 Perforated Subwavelength Diffractive Lens Most diffractive elements (DEs) are designed using algorithms based on scalar diffraction theory and are fabricated with large features relative to the operational wavelength.

18 1 The Brief Elementary Basics of Antenna Arrays Y Source Y Z X Z Thin support substrate Zone plate metall rings Fig. 8 CFZPL Antenna design: Side view (a), Front view (b) The circular geometry stems from the fact that the spherical waves from the feed create constant phase zones on the planar surface that are circular. The metal rings coincide with the alternating 180° phase sub-zones on the surface of the antenna aperture. The EM waves that hit the transparent regions diffract through and combine to collimate a beam in the far field.

The rays have a phase at F, which depends on the positions of S and of F, the distance between them, and on the point where the ray went through the diffractive element. The path length of the shortest ray connecting S and F, sometimes called the direct ray, is R=|SO|+|OF|. Historically, beginning with Fresnel, the phase of a general ray with path length r=r1+r2 (where r1=|SM| and r2=|MF|) has been computed by subtracting R from r, implicitly assuming that the distance R of the shortest ray defines the phase origin θref =0° or reference phase.

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