Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology by Jean-Paul Sartre

By Jean-Paul Sartre

Born in Paris in 1905, Sartre was once a professor of philosophy while he joined the French military on the outbreak of worldwide struggle II. Captured by way of the Germans, he was once published, after approximately a 12 months, in 1941. He instantly joined the French resistance as a journalist. within the postwar period Jean-Paul Sartre - thinker, critic, novelist, and dramatist - grew to become the most influential males of this century. He died in Paris in 1980.

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Furthermore it is in connection with the study of facticity that he presents the most detailed analysis of the problem of freedom, for it is the limitations offered by man’s connections with external being which offer the most serious threat to Sartre’s view that the For-itself is absolutely free. In Being and Nothingness, which as L’Être et le Néant8 appeared in France in 1943, Sartre has incorporated the views which I have mentioned here as well as a number of less important themes found in scattered short stories and essays.

The continued pursuit of this ideal with Sartre is a way of trying to escape from one’s self-responsibility and is definitely not man’s high destiny. And here desire is positive, if at all, only on the intervening levels. As compared with Plato, Sartre’s view might appear the more negative (whether true or not is, of course, another question). If compared with Epicurus, on the other hand, Sartre’s position is seen to be definitely opposed to a philosophy which advocated the repression of all but the most moderate desires.

Thus the consciousnesses of two persons are always individual and always self-consciousnesses, but to be individual and to be selfconscious does not mean to be personal. ” (p. 106) Sartre makes a sharp distinction between the individual consciousness in its purity and psychic qualities, by which he means what is ordinarily thought of as the personality. , love, hate) and that these in turn determine our consciousness. The reality, he claims, is exactly the reverse. Consciousness determines the state, and the states constitute the Ego.

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