Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach by Steven S. Zumdahl, Susan A. Zumdahl

By Steven S. Zumdahl, Susan A. Zumdahl

Steve and Susan Zumdahl's books specialise in aiding readers construct serious considering abilities throughout the strategy of changing into self sufficient problem-solvers. Their philosophy is to aid readers learn how to "think like a chemists" to allow them to practice the method of challenge fixing to all points in their lives. In CHEMISTRY: AN ATOMS FIRST technique, the Zumdahls use a significant process that starts with the atom and proceeds during the notion of molecules, constitution, and bonding, to extra complicated fabrics and their houses. This procedure encourages readers to target conceptual studying early within the path, instead of counting on memorization and a "plug and chug" approach to challenge fixing that even the easiest rookies can fall again on while faced with widespread fabric. The Atoms First association presents a chance for readers to take advantage of the instruments of serious thinkers: to invite questions, to use principles and versions and to judge outcomes.

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Also has three significant figures. Exact numbers never limit the number of significant figures in a calculation. 1. 3 3. Exact numbers. Many times calculations involve numbers that were not obtained using measuring devices but were determined by counting: 10 experiments, 3 apples, 8 molecules. Such numbers are called exact numbers. They can be assumed to have an infinite number of significant figures. Other examples of exact numbers are the 2 in 2␲r (the circumference of a circle) and the 4 and the 3 in 43pr 3 (the volume of a sphere).

Indd 13 10/29/10 7:28 AM 14 Review Measurement and Calculations in Chemistry In using dimensional analysis, your verification that everything has been done correctly is that you end up with the correct units. In doing chemistry problems, you should always include the units for the quantities used. Always check to see that the units cancel to give the correct units for the final result. This provides a very valuable check, especially for complicated problems. Study the procedures for unit conversions in the following Examples.

Rule 2 is consistent with the operation of electronic calculators. b. is equal to or greater than 5, the preceding digit is increased by 1. 4. Although rounding is generally straightforward, one point requires special emphasis. 348 needs to be rounded to two significant figures. 348 h Look at this number to round to two significant figures. Do not round sequentially. 84. 3 because 4 is less than 5. It is incorrect to round sequentially. 4. When rounding, use only the first number to the right of the last significant figure.

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