Citizenship, Work and Welfare: Searching for the Good by Julia Parker

By Julia Parker

Citizenship, paintings and Welfare analyses altering definitions of citizenship, quite in terms of paintings, in nineteenth and 20th-century Britain. It strains the debates in regards to the duties of presidency and the entitlements and tasks of people that built according to the social and monetary difficulties of industrialization. It exhibits how conceptions of the rights of citizenship have moved past easy prerequisites to the belief of 'inclusion' - the facility to participate in common social actions. The booklet closes with a dialogue of the problems of honouring citizenship entitlements on the finish of the 20 th century in a society with emerging expectancies, chronic unemployment and an growing older population.

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First was his religion. His conception of the ideal society where men sought freedom and equality and the common good was derived from his Christianity, and it was the spreading of the Christian faith that offered the best hope of its achievement. In her biography of her husband, Henrietta Barnett remarks that he was remembered more for his efforts at social reform in Whitechapel than for his religious work but that religion `held the main place in his heart's core'. 2 Second, Barnett was a pragmatist and a man of action who insisted that theory and doctrine, however hallowed by secular or sacred traditions of thought or faith, must adapt to changing knowledge and circumstances.

34 The development of moral character required that people take responsibility for acting rightly. 35 While capitalists must assure the material independence of workers, they in turn must reform their domestic life and put aside drunkenness and brutal violence. 36 Perhaps not surprisingly in the 1880s, `love to our fellow men' had a distinctly Imperial flavour. 37 The vision of social advance to what Toynbee described as `brotherhood in perfect citizenship' was, thus, fraught with difficulty. The greatest obstacle, he feared, was apathy and the reluctance of workmen to listen to anything which did not concern pleasure or profit.

In 1905 he set out far-reaching proposals for dealing with the unemployed, but reforms would only reach their end, he warned, as members of a community realized their mutual responsibility to ensure9 that the capacities and talents of each were raised to the highest level. A crucial element in the elevation of collective well-being above the interests of individuals or classes was the idea of `service'. 10 In a Christian society the ideal life would lie in `being' not `having'. 11 `God said of old; ``Thou shalt do no murder''.

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