CMOS Single Chip Fast Frequency Hopping Synthesizers for by Taoufik Bourdi

By Taoufik Bourdi

During this publication, the authors define specified layout technique for speedy frequency hopping synthesizers for RF and instant communications functions. there's nice emphasis on fractional-N delta-sigma established part locked loops from requirements, method research and structure making plans to circuit layout and silicon implementation. The built strategies within the booklet may help in designing very low noise, excessive pace fractional-N frequency synthesizers.

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Extra resources for CMOS Single Chip Fast Frequency Hopping Synthesizers for Wireless Multi-Gigahertz Applications: Design Methodology, Analysis, and Implementation (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)

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The settling of the loop is best viewed by monitoring the tuning voltage that reaches its desired value as illustrated in the figure. The synthesized VCO frequency and its correspondent local oscillator frequency are both shown to reach their respective values within 7 Ps. 5 Ps the '–6 fully settles and the effect of the initial seed disappears completely, hence increasing the modulator activity. It should be 54 Chapter 4 mentioned here that this simulation takes a couple of seconds compared to a few days if transistor-level transient simulations were run.

21) C3 ( sR2C1  1)  ( sR3C3  1)( sR2C1C2  C1  C2 ) Main Divider Noise The divider is a periodically time-varying circuit. The fixed-ratio frequency divider gives an ideal noise figure F = 20log(N). 22) Phase-Frequency Detector Phase Noise Measurements made on frequency synthesizers with a decreasing division ratio showed that there is a lowering in the phase noise plateau [3]. However, this 20log(N) improvement of phase noise is somewhat offset by the increase of sampling frequency at the PFD.

A. A. Kwasniewski, “Delta–Sigma Modulation in Fractional-N Frequency Synthesis,” IEEE Journal SolidState Circuits, 28, pp. 553–559, May 1993. [6] B. Miller and B. Conley, “A Multiple Modulator Fractional Divider,” Proceedings of IEEE 44th Annual Symposium Frequency Control, 1990, pp. 559–567. [7] B. Miller and B. Conley, “A Multiple Modulator Fractional Divider,” IEEE Transactions of Instrumentation Measurement, 40, pp. 578–583, June 1991. [8] V. , Wiley: New York, 1987. E. Best, Phase Locked-Loop Design Simulation and Applications, 3rd edn.

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