Cosmic Perspectives in Space Physics by Sukumar Biswas (auth.)

By Sukumar Biswas (auth.)

In the early years of the 20th century, Victor Hess of Germany flew tools in balloons and so stumbled on in 1912 that an extra-~errestial radiation of unknown starting place is incident in the world with a nearly consistent depth perpetually. those penetrating non­ sun radiations which have been referred to as Cosmic Rays by way of Millikan, united states, opened the recent frontier of area physics and lots of prime scientists have been interested in it. on the finish of global warfare II a few house automobiles, e.g. stratospheric balloons, rockets and satellites have been built. In 1950 and onwards, those cars enabled unbelievable advances in area physics and area astrophysics. New horizons have been opened within the explorations of cosmic rays, the earth's magnetosphere, the sunlight and the heliosphere, the moon and the planets. utilizing space-borne tools, intriguing discoveries have been made up of stars, and galaxies within the infra-red, extremely violet, x-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. during this textual content e-book those attention-grabbing new findings are provided intensive and on a degree compatible for senior undergraduate and graduate scholars, learn scientists and scientists of alternative disciplines. even supposing there are numerous first-class books and monographs on diversified elements, every one of these care for particular components. during this textual content ebook the findings of house physics and astrophysics are awarded in an built-in demeanour with right introductions to the elemental elements, and those are supplemented through suitable floor established observations.

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6 km/sec or equal to 27,410 km/hr. If the final velocity is smaller than the above, the spacecraft will re-enter the earth's atmosphere with a large elliptical trajectory. If the velocity is higher than the above the spacecraft will escape the gravitational force of the earth and will eventually be a sun-orbiting spacecraft. 3 km/sec would lead to its elliptical orbit, and V = 11 km/sec corresponds to the escape velocity from the earth's gravitational pull. 3) This is of the same form as the Keplers law of motion of planets in the solar system which states that the square of the time period of a planet is proportional to the cube of its distance from the Sun.

So a novel technique has been developed. When the balloon reaches a level, say, 15 km altitude, a valve at the top is opened by radio command and the balloon is made to stop ascending and it floats at this altitude. Then the balloon travels fast in the strong westerly wind. As it reaches the reception limit of the ground station, the balloon is made to rise to, say, 30 km by dropping sufficient ballast, and then it floats at the ceiling altitude, traveling back westward in the easterly wind towards the launch site and is recovered near the shore.

The tinted balloons could be used only during day-time flights, so it was necessary to have a superior type of white or transparent balloon material. In the late 1960's Winzen International Inc. of the USA developed a special type of transparent material for the balloon film with a very low brittle point. This film, called "Strato-film" has been used for balloon making for many years since then. In 1992 the Indian Balloon Facility group developed a new kind of transparent balloon fabric, called 'Anterix', which was found to be as good as Strato-film{8l.

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