Coupled 3D hydrodynamic models for submarine outfalls by Tobias Bleninger

By Tobias Bleninger

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6). Due to small and transient variations in salin- 10 - - Coastal wastewater discharges - ity inactivation by salinity is unlikely to decrease mortality rates significantly (WRc, 1990). Reduced radiation intensities instead, for example due to light attenuation in few meters below the water surface, may reduce inactivation rates up to 90% of the value at the surface (WRc, 1990). In turbid waters, inactivation is even smaller. Thus, significant differences exist between daylight and night conditions.

Nevertheless, inactivation rates are of the same order as for bacteria. Fig. 6: Inactivation in seawater of echovirus 6 as a function of temperature (left) and E. coli as a function of solar radiation (right) (reproduced from Bitton, 1994) All above mentioned variability and uncertainties in describing pathogen inactivation in unsteady, non-uniform and stratified flows indicate the difficulties in describing assimilative capacities and transport characteristics and their representative scales in general and for wastewater discharges into coastal waters in particular.

The depth/width ratio clearly shows that coastal waters can generally be considered as shallow flows. Fig. 3: Aerial view of the receiving waters of outfalls discharging in the Santos Bay, Brazil (left, courtesy of municipality of Praia Grande) and the São Sebastião channel, Brazil (right, Lamparelli, 2003) Except for buoyancy driven zones (close to river outflows and estuaries), current systems in coastal regions used for outfall installations are dominated by the combined effects of surface wind forcing and tidal action resulting in non-uniform, unsteady flows.

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