Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF by Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández

By Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández

Varactors are passive semiconductor units utilized in digital circuits, as a voltage-controlled manner of storing strength for you to enhance the volume of electrical cost produced. some time past, using reasonably cheap fabrication strategies resembling complementary steel oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and silicon germanium (SiGe) have been stored for built-in circuits operating in frequency levels lower than the GHz. Now, the elevated operating frequency of radio frequency built-in circuits (RF ICs) for conversation units, and the fad of system-on-chip expertise, has driven the necessities of varactors to the restrict. because the frequency of RF purposes maintains to upward push, it really is crucial that passive units reminiscent of varactors are of optimal caliber, making this a severe layout factor.

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Therefore the total capacitance will be: C ¼ Cox þ Cp : ð3:5Þ When the gate size is increased, Cp is reduced and Cox is increased. Therefore, the parasitic capacitance is neglegible. In addition, it can be said that for small gate lengths, where Cox decreases and Cp increases, as the increase in capacitance is linear in this working zone, the parasitic capacitances also have little influence. However, in the inversion zone the total capacitance can be estimated using: C¼ Cox CSi þ Cp : Cox þ CSi ð3:6Þ In this working zone, the capacitance does not increase linearly with the gate length due to the influence of the parasitic capacitances.

6). 6 Illustration of the effects appearing in an NMOS varactor in depletion mode. OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF AN NMOS VARACTOR  37 B1(t) magnetic field: this is generated by the variable current (AC signal) flowing along the metal track that forms the gate contact. It causes:  parasitic inductance. E1(t) electric field in the gate: this causes:  ohmic losses in the gate contact. E2(t) electric field between the gate contact and the accumulation zone: this is generated as a result of the voltage difference between the two.

16 Influence of the distance between islands. 17 Effect of the buried layer on a PN-junction varactor. zone does not increase. Therefore the tuning range is also kept constant. The quality factor is reduced when the distance is increased owing to an increase in the resistance of the varactor, but this resistance does not increase linearly with the said distance. The resistance of the varactor might be expected to increase in proportion to the distance between the islands, but this is not so due to the fact that most integrated technologies include an Nþ type low-resistivity buried layer under the N well.

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