Design and Engineering of Wdm Systems and Networks by Neophytos (Neo) Antoniades, Georgios Ellinas, Ioannis Roudas

By Neophytos (Neo) Antoniades, Georgios Ellinas, Ioannis Roudas

Modeling, Simulation, layout and Engineering of WDM platforms and Networks provides readers with the fundamental abilities, thoughts, and layout innovations used to start layout and engineering of optical communique structures and networks at a variety of layers. the most recent semi-analytical method simulation thoughts are utilized to optical WDM platforms and networks, and a overview of a number of the present parts of optical communications is gifted. Simulation is blended with experimental verification and engineering to provide the in addition to cutting-edge research.

This contributed quantity is split into 3 elements, accommodating assorted readers attracted to a variety of forms of networks and functions. the 1st a part of the booklet provides modeling methods and simulation instruments as a rule for the actual layer together with transmission results, units, subsystems, and systems), while the second one half positive aspects extra engineering/design matters for numerous different types of optical structures together with ULH, entry, and in-building platforms. The 3rd a part of the publication covers networking matters with regards to the layout of provisioning and survivability algorithms for impairment-aware and multi-domain networks.

Intended for pro scientists, corporation engineers, and college researchers, the textual content demonstrates the effectiveness of computer-aided layout in terms of community engineering and prototyping.

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34 A. 2 Unidirectional Transmission and Vectorial Field Description An increase of the channel bitrate to more than 10 Gbit/s makes degradations due to PMD noticeable. Modeling PMD in the fiber requires a vectorial approach, describing the electrical field of the propagating light by its Jones vector, and not only by the SOP-averaged electrical field components. To simulate system degradations due to PMD is time-consuming, as PMD is a random phenomenon that is varying in time and frequency. Special statistical treatments such as the coarse-step model [49, 50] (possibly combined with the importance sampling technique [51]) can be applied to avoid an inefficient straightforward integration with very short steps accounting for the short scale length of PMD.

Note that those two states of polarization always represent orthogonal polarizations [32]. Although the PDL of modern transmission fibers is rather small, and mostly negligible, the PDL of individual components or discrete events along the transmission line (such as couplers, splices, filters) can cause significant power fluctuations with respect to polarization. Furthermore, optical amplifiers such as Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) and fiber Raman amplifiers (FRA) or distributed Raman amplifiers (DRA) as commonly referred to may provide unequal gain for all states of polarization, an effect referred to as PDG.

This results in gain reduction until absorption of pump power and stimulated plus spontaneous emissions are balancing each other. This effect is known as gain saturation. The saturation characteristic of an EDFA is very complex, as it is dependent on fiber distance. Assuming a homogeneous power distribution along the EDFA, the ratio of input power Pin and saturation power Psat is given by Iannone et al. [25] 2 Computer Modeling of Transport Layer Effects 45 Fig. 14 Sample gain/loss profile for various values of population inversion in a typical EDFA.

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