By Carlos Quemada
Engineers face stiff demanding situations in designing phase-locked loop (PLL) circuits for instant communications due to part noise and different stumbling blocks. This sensible booklet involves the rescue with a confirmed PLL layout and optimization technique that we could designers examine their recommendations, are expecting PLL habit, and advance low-priced PLLs that meet functionality specifications it doesn't matter what IC (integrated circuit) demanding situations they arrive up opposed to. This uniquely complete toolkit takes designers step by step via operation ideas, layout tactics, section noise research, structure concerns, and CMOS realizations for every PLL development block. It offers a pattern layout of an absolutely built-in PLL for WLAN functions, demonstrating each step from specifications definition and circuit characterization to format iteration and circuit schematics.
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Extra resources for Design Methodology for RF CMOS Phase Locked Loops
13 Design flow of an integrated frequency synthesizer. Allen, P. , and D. R. Holdberg, CMOS Analog Circuit Design, New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. Baker, R. , H. W. Li, and D. E. Boyce, Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation, New York: IEEE Press, 1998. , CMOS RFIC Design Principles, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2007. , and M. Steyaert, Wireless CMOS Frequency Synthesizer Design, Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998. 20 Design Methodology for RF CMOS Phase Locked Loops Gray, P. , and R.
780–787. , ‘‘A 5-GHz Direct-Conversion CMOS Transceiver,’’ IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 38, No. 12, December 2003, pp. 2232–2237.  Behzad, A. 11a Wireless LAN Standard,’’ IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, Vol. 38, No. 12, December 2003, pp. 2209–2220. 11a Wireless LAN,’’ IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 38, No. 12, December 2003, pp. 2221–2229.  Leung, G. C. , and H. C. 2-GHz CMOS Synthesizer for WLAN Applications,’’ IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 39, No.
All these factors contribute to a variation in the width of the correction pulses of the charge pump in a locked loop state and influence the level of this type of reference spurious emission. , the VCO control voltage). This difference, known as mismatch, is maximum in the extremes of the voltage range of VCO tuning. 5V. In this way the noticeable increase in the mismatch and the level of spurious is avoided. 16), the frequency at which spurs appear F spur , and the constant BasePulseSpur. In , a list of values for the constant BasePulseSpur corresponding to different frequency synthesizers, which range from −311 to −292 dBc, are presented.