By Edmar Camargo
Introducing the appliance of box impact Transistors (FET) as frequency multipliers and harmonic oscillators, this article places emphasis on nonlinear ideas, and incorporates a minimum quantity of arithmetic and a mix of concept and experimentation. It goals to assist microwave and millimeter-wave engineers understand the basic recommendations and layout principles of frequency multipliers and harmonic oscillators. The textual content makes a speciality of the suggestions required to generate harmonics and emphasizes circuits. It explores the layout of slender and bandwidth doublers and triplers - either single-ended and balanced configuration. It additionally explains the organization among oscillator thought and frequency multiplier conception in designing harmonic turbines. the $64000 matters whilst using MIC or MMIC applied sciences are mentioned to assist designers choose the simplest strategy for a selected circuit.
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Extra resources for Design of FET frequency multipliers and harmonic oscillators
The simulation is set up as described in the previous section. Two ports are placed at the two substrate contacts. The p-well, the silicon dioxide, the substrate, and the air box are added. The PN junction of the n-well and the p-well/substrate is modeled by a silicon box with zero conductivity. 001 The simulation takes half an hour on an HP DL145 server. 15) with measurements. One can conclude that both methods predict the substrate noise propagation with the same accuracy. 16). However, the HFSS obtains the results about 300 times faster than the SubstrateStorm tool.
Van Heijningen, J. Compiet, P. Wambacq, S. Donnay, M. Engels, and I. Bolsens, “Analysis and experimental verif cation of digital substrate noise generation for epi-type substrates,” JSSC, Vol. 35, No. 7, July 2000, pp. 1002–1008.  G. Van der Plas, C. Soens, G. Vandersteen, P. Wambacq, and S. Donnay, “Analysis of substrate noise propagation in a lightly doped substrate [mixed-signal ICs],” Proc. Proceeding of the 34th European Solid-State Device Research Conference ESSDERC 2004, 21–23 September, 2004, pp.
When the rectangular contact is converted into an equivalent circular one by (equal perimeter, because of 2D f ow): r= a resistance value of 770Ω is obtained. This is a reasonable approximation, given that the current f owing in the lightly doped substrate layer has been neglected. 2 S-Parameter Measurement (Forward Propagation) S-parameter measurements have been performed on the test structure. 8. At low frequencies (< 10 MHz) the S21 propagation is equivalent with a f oating 676Ω resistance between the two contacts.