By Alan Tomlinson, Christopher Young
Nationwide identification and international activities occasions appears on the value of overseas sporting activities and why they generate huge, immense audiences around the world. concentrating on the Olympic video games and the men’s soccer (soccer) global Cup, the members research the political, cultural, fiscal, and ideological impacts that body those occasions. chosen case reports contain the 1936 Nazi Olympics in Berlin, the 1934 global Cup Finals in Italy, the original case of the 1972 Munich video games, the transformative 1984 video games in la, and the 2002 Asian global Cup Finals, between others. The case experiences convey how the Olympics and the area Cup Finals supply a foundation for the articulation of entrenched and dominant political ideologies, inspire persisting senses of nationwide id, and act as barometers for the altering ideological weather of the fashionable and more and more globalized modern global. via rigorous scholarly analyses, the book’s individuals aid to light up the expanding importance of large-scale sporting activities at the foreign level.
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Extra info for National Identity and Global Sports Events: Culture, Politics, and Spectacle in the Olympics and the Football World Cup
Baudrillard, Jean. 1981. Simulacres et simulations. Paris: Éditions Galilée. Berkaak, Odd Are. 1999. “In the heart of the volcano”: The Olympic games as mega drama. In Olympic games as performance and public event, ed. Arne Martin Klausen. London: Berghahn. Boorstin, Daniel. 1961. The image: A guide to pseudo-events in America. New York: Vintage. Chalip, Laurence. 2000. Sydney 2000: Volunteers and the organization of the Olympic Games: Economic and formative aspects. In Volunteers, global society, and the Olympic Movement, ed.
Yet in other remarkable ways and for the overwhelming majority of persons, in our ethnographic experience, the relay is an anti-spectacle, par excellence. Spectacle not only institutionalizes a radical role separation between actors (or better “the action”) and observers, it depends on an imposing, overwhelming, awesome, and perhaps frightening and humiliating distance between them. By some demographic measures, the relay is bigger in terms of direct, non-mass-mediated, person-to-person and person-to-symbol encounter than the Games themselves, and yet out on the relay, the intimacies associated 28 THE THEORY OF SPECTACLE with ritual, festival, and game (for certain kinds of actors) predominate.
At the same time, these meanings are highly differentiated, context dependent, and not reducible to some common denominator. Just so, beyond the empty basics, the Olympic flame is open to free interpretation. No one can force anyone to interpret it one way or another. 18 This factor contributes mightily to the difficulty that elite agents are having in homogenizing, capturing, and redirecting the meaning of the relay to their own ends. Commercial sponsorships do not in and of themselves necessarily promote spectacle values, but the marketing of those sponsorships almost inevitably does.